the Cossack capital of the XVI – XVIII centuries
Zaporizhzhya Sich – the capital of the Cossack lands, the very heart of grassroots lesarstva the center kozacko volnost that existed at the rapids of the Dnieper river since the mid-16th century. until 1775. Education 3апорозької Sich is associated with the formation of the Ukrainian Cossacks and the development of previously devastated by the Tatars of Ukrainian lands between the Dnieper and Southern bug. Numerous groups that were involved in the economic development of these lands and waged a constant struggle against the Tatars were forced to build on the care for its own security. There were 8 of Zaporizhzhya Sich, which alternately succeeded each other. They are located on the territory of present Zaporizhzhya, Dnipropetrovsk and Kherson regions. The appearance of the first is connected with the name of D. Vishnevetskogo. In the 1st floor. 50s of the 16th century he founded on the island of Khortytsya Malaya (island canoe), the castle, which became a Cossack stronghold and stronghold for large-scale campaigns against the Tatars.
The Cossacks were chosen for the location of the Slaughter places that nature has been made inaccessible Islands and peninsulas, and strengthened them with a wooden-earthen structures. 3апорозькі the camp was dug in a moat, and around them was erected a shaft, whose height reached 10 meters. At the top of the shaft was set a palisade of sharpened wooden piles. Less secure for the opponent the place had been strengthened with wooden towers with mounted guns. Most of the exits of the fortress were made narrow and were covered with loopholes. Inside the camp was the Maidan Zaporizhia Church. Around Sich of the square stood a long barracks – huts where the Cossacks lived. In addition to shelters around Legion square was Smoking the Treasury, barns, houses separate foremen, pushkarnaya. Later the camp became a great trading center. Therefore, near Zaporizhia fortress was located in a suburb market. There were also craft workshops.
Diorama “Military Council to host” in the Museum of Cossacks on the Khortytsia.
3апорозька Sich was the center, where the highest governing bodies of Liberties Zaporizhia army Here was the residence of the ataman, which, together with the military officers exercised Supreme military, judicial and administrative authority throughout the territory of Zaporozhye. In the camp housed its garrison. He was not very numerous and consisted of several thousand Cossacks, who lived here permanently and ensure permanent combat readiness of Troops Zaporizhzhya. When there is a need to gather more troops in the service were called Cossacks, who lived in Zimovniki and were married in the fields and Cossacks. For several days the Army of Zaporozhye were increased several times. In addition, 3апорозької the camp was held of the Council, which the Cossacks had decided the most important questions of his life, elected a foreman and divided by lot area.
Created to deal with the predatory attacks of the Tatars, Sich played a prominent role in the European struggle against Turkish aggression, was the springboard for many of the Cossack campaigns against the Crimean khanate and the Ottoman Empire. The gain in the late 16th century. national-religious oppression in the Commonwealth turned 3апорозьку Sich in the center of the national liberation struggle of Ukrainian people led by B. Khmelnitsky. At the end of the XVIII century. The Sich began to lose political and military value and was liquidated by the Russian government in 1775.
Taking care of the reconstruction of historical memory and a return to centuries-old traditions of Zaporizhzhya Cossacks on the territory of the National reserve “Khortytsya” was a historical-cultural complex “Zaporizhzhya Sich”. The “Sich” is not a copy of any of the eight Zaporizhzhya Sich. It is a generalized image of the Cossack capital, which presents the main buildings inherent in Zaporizhia Scam Church, hut, house of the ataman, the office, the military piggy Bank, school, pushkarnaya. In the suburbs: a forge, a pottery, pub and eating house ” for sasja guests. Historical and cultural complex “Zaporizhzhya Sich” on Khortitsa island is designed to give contemporaries a holistic view of this unique phenomenon in the history of Ukraine of the Zaporozhye Cossacks.